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Microb Pathog. 2016 Sep 9;100:62-69. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2016.09.004. [Epub ahead of print]

Species diversity and molecular characterization of nontuberculous mycobacteria in hospital water system of a developing country, Iran.

Azadi D1, Shojaei H2, Pourchangiz M3, Dibaj R1, Davarpanah M1, Naser AD3.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Hospital environment is of crucial importance in cross-transmission of opportunistic pathogens to the patients. Nontuberculous mycobacteria have the remarkable capability to withstand the adverse condition of hospital environments and pose a potential threat to the health of patients. The current study aimed to assess the frequency and diversity of mycobacteria in hospital water of a developing country using a combination of conventional and molecular methods.

METHODS:

A total of 148 hospital water samples collected from 38 hospitals were analyzed for the presence of mycobacteria using standard protocols for isolation and characterization of the isolates. The conventional tests were used for preliminary identification and Runyon's classification, the PCR amplification of hsp65 gene and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA were applied for the genus and species identification.

RESULTS:

A total of 71 [48%] isolates including 30 rapidly growing and 41 slowly growing mycobacteria were recovered. The three most prevalent species were M. lentiflavum, 28.2%, M. paragordonae, 21.1%, and M. fredriksbergense, 9.8%, followed by M. simiae and M. novocastrense, 7%, M. canariasense and M. cookii like, 5.6%, M. setense, 4.2%, M. fortuitum and M. gordonae, 2.8%, and the single isolates of M. austroafricanum, M. massiliense, M. obuense, and M. phocaicum like.

CONCLUSION:

The results of our study show that the hospital water resources, drinking or non-drinking can be the reservoir of a diverse range of mycobacteria. This reaffirms the fact that these organisms due to intrinsic resistance to common antiseptic and disinfectant solutions persist in hospitals and create a threat to the patient's health and in particular to those that suffer from weakness of immunity.

Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

16S rRNA sequencing; Hospital infection; Nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM)

PMID: 27616445 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2016.09.004

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62.

Res Microbiol. 2016 Sep 9. pii: S0923-2508(16)30096-1. doi: 10.1016/j.resmic.2016.08.004. [Epub ahead of print]

The microbiome of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded in Portugal.

Godoy-Vitorino F1, Rodriguez-Hilario A2, Alves AL3, Gonçalves F4, Cabrera-Colon B5, Mesquita CS6, Soares-Castro P7, Ferreira M8, Marçalo A9, Vingada J10, Eira C11, Santos PM12.

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Abstract

Infectious diseases with epizootic consequences have not been fully studied in marine mammals. Presently, the unprecedented depth of sequencing, made available by high-throughput approaches, allows detailed comparisons of the microbiome in health and disease. This is the first report of the striped dolphin microbiome in different body sites. Samples from one striped female edematous dolphin were acquired from a variety of body niches, including the blowhole, oral cavity, oral mucosa, tongue, stomach, intestines and genital mucosa. Detailed 16S rRNA analysis of over half a million sequences identified 235 OTUs. Beta diversity analyses indicated that microbial communities vary in structure and cluster by sample origin. Pathogenic, Gram-negative, facultative and obligate anaerobic taxa were significantly detected, including Cetobacterium, Fusobacterium and Ureaplasma. Phocoenobacter and Arcobacter dominated the oral-type samples, while Cardiobacteriaceae and Vibrio were associated with the blowhole and Photobacterium were abundant in the gut. We report for the first time the association of Epulopiscium with a marine mammal gut. The striped dolphin microbiota shows variation in structure and diversity according to the organ type. The high dominance of Gram-negative anaerobic pathogens evidences a cetacean microbiome affected by human-related bacteria.

Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

KEYWORDS:

16S rRNA; Cetacean; Metagenomics; Microbiota; Striped dolphin

PMID: 27615066 DOI: 10.1016/j.resmic.2016.08.004

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63.

Microb Ecol. 2016 Sep 10. [Epub ahead of print]

Pharmacological Potential of Phylogenetically Diverse Actinobacteria Isolated from Deep-Sea Coral Ecosystems of the Submarine Avilés Canyon in the Cantabrian Sea.

Sarmiento-Vizcaíno A1, González V1, Braña AF1, Palacios JJ2, Otero L3, Fernández J2, Molina A4, Kulik A5, Vázquez F1,2, Acuña JL4, García LA6, Blanco G7.

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Abstract

Marine Actinobacteria are emerging as an unexplored source for natural product discovery. Eighty-seven deep-sea coral reef invertebrates were collected during an oceanographic expedition at the submarine Avilés Canyon (Asturias, Spain) in a range of 1500 to 4700 m depth. From these, 18 cultivable bioactive Actinobacteria were isolated, mainly from corals, phylum Cnidaria, and some specimens of phyla Echinodermata, Porifera, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca and Sipuncula. As determined by 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, all isolates belong to the phylum Actinobacteria, mainly to the Streptomyces genus and also to Micromonospora, Pseudonocardia and Myceligenerans. Production of bioactive compounds of pharmacological interest was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques and subsequent database comparison. Results reveal that deep-sea isolated Actinobacteria display a wide repertoire of secondary metabolite production with a high chemical diversity. Most identified products (both diffusible and volatiles) are known by their contrasted antibiotic or antitumor activities. Bioassays with ethyl acetate extracts from isolates displayed strong antibiotic activities against a panel of important resistant clinical pathogens, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as fungi, all of them isolated at two main hospitals (HUCA and Cabueñes) from the same geographical region. The identity of the active extracts components of these producing Actinobacteria is currently being investigated, given its potential for the discovery of pharmaceuticals and other products of biotechnological interest.

KEYWORDS:

Actinobacteria ecology; Actinomycetes; Antimicrobial agents; Bioactive secondary metabolites; Volatiles

PMID: 27614749 DOI: 10.1007/s00248-016-0845-2

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64.

Anaerobe. 2016 Sep 8;42:78-80. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.09.002. [Epub ahead of print]

A case of Bacteroides pyogenes bacteremia secondary to liver abscess.

Park JE1, Park SY1, Song DJ1, Huh HJ1, Ki CS1, Peck KR2, Lee NY3.

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Abstract

Bacteroides pyogenes, a non-spore-forming, anaerobic, gram-negative rod, is a component of the oral flora of animals and has, on occasion, been reported to cause human infection through dog or cat bites. We report the first case of B. pyogenes bacteremia secondary to liver abscess with no history of an animal bite. The microorganism was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing.

Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

16S rRNA; Bacteremia; Bacteroides pyogenes; Liver abscess; Sequencing

PMID: 27614214 DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.09.002

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65.

Int J Food Microbiol. 2016 Aug 24;238:103-112. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2016.08.030. [Epub ahead of print]

Fermentation of African kale (Brassica carinata) using L. plantarum BFE 5092 and L. fermentum BFE 6620 starter strains.

Oguntoyinbo FA1, Cho GS2, Trierweiler B3, Kabisch J2, Rösch N2, Neve H2, Bockelmann W2, Frommherz L3, Nielsen DS4, Krych L4, Franz CM5.

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Abstract

Vegetables produced in Africa are sources of much needed micronutrients and fermentation is one way to enhance the shelf life of these perishable products. To prevent post-harvest losses and preserve African leafy vegetables, Lactobacillus plantarum BFE 5092 and Lactobacillus fermentum BFE 6620 starter strains were investigated for their application in fermentation of African kale (Brassica carinata) leaves. They were inoculated at 1×107cfu/ml and grew to a maximum level of 108cfu/ml during 24h submerged fermentation. The strains utilized simple sugars (i.e., glucose, fructose, and sucrose) in the kale to quickly reduce the pH from pH6.0 to pH3.6 within 24h. The strains continued to produce both d and l lactic acid up to 144h, reaching a maximum concentration of 4.0g/l. Fermentations with pathogens inoculated at 104cfu/ml showed that the quick growth of the starters inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis, as well as other enterobacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4-region) amplicon sequencing showed that in the spontaneous fermentations a microbial succession took place, though with marked differences in biodiversity from fermentation to fermentation. The fermentations inoculated with starters however were clearly dominated by both the inoculated strains throughout the fermentations. RAPD-PCR fingerprinting showed that the strains established themselves at approx. equal proportions. Although vitamins C, B1 and B2 decreased during the fermentation, the final level of vitamin C in the product was an appreciable concentration of 35mg/100g. In conclusion, controlled fermentation of kale offers a promising avenue to prevent spoilage and improve the shelf life and safety.

Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Fermentation; Kale; Lactic acid bacteria; Metagenomics indigenous food

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